About 71% of the earth surface is covered with water, and up-to millions of species live in these seas, from which more than two-third life are remained undiscovered according to a study that also catalogued all of the known species that dwell beneath the waters.
So far, the marine scientists have catalogued 226,000 species, excluding marine bacteria. Another 65,000 are waiting to be described in museums and collections. By using a computer simulation, it has been concluded that between 700,000 and 1 million species live in the sea.
So let’s talk about how aquatic life is different from than that of land tones:
- HABITATS:-some habitats sunny and warm some are deep, dark and cold .species of living beings live in these habitats according to their adaptability most of the ocean life can be found in coastal habitats of continental shelf, even it covers only 7% area of the total ocean.most of the open ocean habitats are found in deep ocean far away from these shelf.
TYPES OF HABITATS:-
- Inter-tidal Zones:-on the shores between high and low tide lies the inter-tidal zone where land and sea meet. this zone is underwater at the time of high tide and exposed to air at the time of low tide.the animals and plants live in this zone must cope up with being submerged in water and being exposed to air.rocky shores and beaches comes under inter-tidal zones.
- Kelp forest:- kelp forest looks like a tree, but actually it is a large brown algae.kelp is known for its size, it grows up from ocean floor and can reach about 260 feet in length and grow as fast as 1.5 feet per day.kelp does not have root. Instead, it is secured by holdfasts to a rocky seafloor. kelp forests are home to many different ocean species life . Fishes, sea urchins such and other marine animals, such as snails and sea otters like to call this home. mammals like sea lion and whale also like to dwell underneath its canopy.
- Seagrass meadows:-seagrass are aquatic plants found all over worlds oceans and estuaries on every continent except Antarctica. There are over 70 species identified by scientists.some species are adapted to cold climates, while others prefer the warmth of tropics. They are the only flowering plants living in the seas. Sea-grasses attract many species of fish and shellfish, some of which are only found in seagrass meadows. Many fish species seagrass areas as nursery to grow and mature. Seagrass need clean water and sunlight to thrive. Assessments filters water and produce oxygen. They control erosion by trapping soil and sand with their roots. In areas with dense, storms often do less damage to coral reefs life and coastal lands as seagrass act as a buffer, absorbing energy and from waves.
- Coral reefs:-coral reefs are amazing habitats; offering vibrant colours and the greatest biodiversity of any marine ecosystem on the planet. some coral reefs are so large they can be seen even from space. coral reefs are formed over a process of thousands of years. each coral reef is made up of colonies of tiny animals called polyps. Each polyp produces calcium carbonate, which makes up their skeleton and protects coral internal bodies.corals crave the marine conditions found in tropic and sub-tropics.coral reefs support approximate 25% of all marine animals, from thousands of fish species to sponges to marine mammals.is is also a front-line defence against tropical storms, helping to protect all of our coastal raising temperatures and overfishing are the reasons of depletion of coral reefs.
- Oyster reefs-: Oyster reefs are similar to coral reefs because they also provide structures where plants and animals can live. Oysters form reefs when they reproduce and settle on the shells of other oysters and create a massive structure consisting of many individuals. Oysters provide a valuable ecosystem service by serving as “vacuum cleaners” and filtering particles from water, improving water quality. Oyster reefs or oyster bars also provide natural protection from storms and waves. The intense harvesting of oysters, pollution and disease has impacted oyster reef habitats. Boat wakes can disturb and damage oysters. It is estimated that 85% of the Earth’s oyster reefs have been lost. Without this valuable habitat, marine life declines, shorelines erode and marshes are no longer protected.
- Open oceans:- the pelagic zone, also known as the open ocean, is the area of the ocean outside of coastal areas. Here you will find some of the biggest marine life species
- Epipelagic zone(ocean surface to 200 meters deep). This is the zone in which photosynthesis can occur because the light is available.
- Mesopelagic zone(200-1,000m) – This is also known as the twilight zone because light becomes limited. There is less oxygen available to organisms in this zone.
- Bathypelagic zone(1,000-4,000m) – This is a dark zone where water pressure is high and the water is cold (around 35-39 degrees).
- Abyssopelagic zone(4,000-6,000m) – This is the zone past the continental slope – the deep water just over the ocean bottom. This is also known as the abyssal zone.
- Hadopelagic zone(deep ocean trenches, greater than 6,000m) – In some places, there are trenches that are deeper than the surrounding ocean floor. These areas are the hadopelagic zone. At a depth of over 36,000 feet, the Mariana Trench is the deepest known point in the ocean.