Nature is very beautiful. But sometimes it becomes too much destructive. There are many sources and ways of destruction in nature. Many natural disasters cause a lots of destruction. Millions of life losses, billions of loss occurs in natural disaster. There are number of natural disasters such as tsunami, earthquake, tornado, volcano etc. They are to dangerous and when occur, take millions of lives with them.
Here we will discuss about one of the such disaster, volcanoes. Volcanoes are one of the most destructive natural disaster that occur on this earth. They not only take lives but the hot lava that come out of them destroys the hole area surrounding them. Forest, building and many other that surrounds volcanoes are all burnt up.
Not only lithosphere gets damage but hydrosphere and atmosphere are also getting damage by this. The lava that comes out of volcanoes release poisonous gases that are harmful to breathe. These gases are mixed up in the atmosphere and become harmful for human beings and animals. The lava that comes out flows through the surface and get deposited in the water bodies. This becomes harmful for aquatic life as well as life on land. Harmful gases are released when lava enters the water bodies. These gases are also poisonous as the previous one and are harmful for nature.
What is volcano?
In simple words, volcano is a opening, circular or almost circular in shape, on the surface of the earth. Through these openings heated materials consisting of water, gases, liquid lava and rock fragments are erupted. These eruptions occur from highly heated interior to the surface of the earth. Volcanoes have a volcanic cone, which is formed when erupted material accumulates around the opening. These openings are connected to the earth through narrow pipe. The volcanic materials erupt through these pipe.
What are types of volcano?
There are varieties of volcanoes based on mode of eruption, periodicity of eruption and many other things. Here we will discuss about number four major types of volcanoes. These are most dangerous and destructive volcanoes.The types of volcanoes are:-
Cinder Cone Volcano
These types of volcanoes occur when particles of lava are ejected from opening and is violently blown into the air and the pieces flow down around the opening(vent). These are simplest type of volcanoes and rarely larger then about one thousand feet above land.
These are huge volcanoes and are so much large in size that they form mountains. Many large mountains Mount Fuji, Mount Cotopaxi and many other mountains come under this category. They have a conduit system inside for magma to come out on the earth surface from deep inside. In these volcanoes, lava does not come out of the interior of the earth from only one opening. They have clusters of opening.
From these volcanoes, lava erupt not only from the vent but also from the walls of volcanoes or from sides of mountains. These types of volcanoes can grow thousands of meters high, making it a mountain. These types of volcanoes can erupt violently and can cause a huge disaster.
These volcanoes are large and broad in size. These build up slowly with many eruptions creating number of layers. The lava that comes out of these volcanoes is thin. So, the lava flows in large area and great distances down the slope of volcanoes.
This is last and fourth type of volcano. These are formed by thick deposit of lava. They explode violently, releasing huge amount of hot rock and ash. The lava that come out of this volcano is too thick to flow and get deposited on the slope of volcanoes, forming huge mountains.
What are effects of volcanic eruptions?
There are various effects of volcanoes, among which most of them are destructive. The eruption from volcanoes cause heavy damage to human file and property and also nature. The large amount of dust, ash, smoke and other materials that come out of volcano create health hazards due to poisonous gases emitted during eruptions and also causes acid rain. Acid rain is responsible for number of damages such as eroding of buildings and many others.
Man-made buildings are got buried, peoples and animals are killed, agricultural farms and pastures are destroyed by the large volumes of hot lava moving at a fast speed. This hot lava also plug rivers and lakes and burn and destroy forests. Earthquakes caused due to explosive eruptions can generate destructive tsunamis which can cause loss of life and property in the affected coastal regions.
The eruptions from volcanoes can change heat balance of the earth and the atmosphere which causes climate change. The eruption of volcanic materials also caused the mass extinction of a few animal species as believed by the scientists. There are not only negative points of volcanic eruptions but there also some of the positive points and useful effects of eruptions. Some of them are given below.
Lava can cause rise to fertile soils. Most of the precious stones are formed because of volcanic activity and eruptions. Geysers and springs that contain warm water and release warm air are tourist attraction. They are also important from the medical point of view due to use chemicals dissolved in these springs and geysers. Some crater lakes are source of rivers. The volcanic rocks are a good source and storehouse of metals and minerals when exposed.